But don't we all know that acupuncture is just placebo??
(Information on my practice here.)
Involvement of spinal serotonin receptors in electroacupuncture anti-hyperalgesia in an inflammatory pain rat model.
Zhang Y, Li A, Xin J, Lao L, Ren K, Berman BM, Tan M, Zhang RX.
Neurochem Res. 2011 Oct;36(10):1785-92.
Center for Integrative Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, 685 W Baltimore street, MSTF Rm 8-22, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.
We previously showed that electroacupuncture (EA) activates medulla-spinal serotonin-containing neurons. The present study investigated the effects of intrathecal 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine creatinine sulfate, a selective neurotoxin for serotonergic terminals, the 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A receptor (5-HT1AR) antagonist NAN-190 hydrobromide and the 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR) antagonist SB-242,084 on EA anti-hyperalgesia. EA was given twice at acupoint GB30 after complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection into hind paw. CFA-induced hyperalgesia was measured by assessing hind paw withdrawal latency (PWL) to a noxious thermal stimulus 30 min post-EA. Serotonin depletion and the 5-HT1AR antagonist blocked EA anti-hyperalgesia; the 5-HT2CR antagonist did not. Immunohistochemical staining showed that spinal 5-HT1AR was expressed and that 5-HT2CR was absent in naive and CFA-injected animals 2.5 h post-CFA. These results show a correlation between EA anti-hyperalgesia and receptor expression. Collectively, the data show that EA activates supraspinal serotonin neurons to release 5-HT, which acts on spinal 5-HT1AR to inhibit hyperalgesia.